Was Irene Over-Hyped? If So, Whose Fault Was It?

Earlier his week, Gerald Baron (on the excellent Crisisblogger
blog) lamented the state of the media today. Yeah, I know, what’s new? Well,
I disagreed with him, which is pretty unusual. But, as usual, he raised a
very important point. Gerald’s post focused on how the media “cried wolf”
on the Hurricane Irene threat.

As this article from the Philadelphia Inquirer points out, Irene was a
deadly storm with 18 deaths and that the media plays a vital role in the
warning the public to take the dangers of a major storm very seriously. But
it also points out that “some cable anchors were still reporting that Irene
could strike New Jersey and New York as a major hurricane long after his
team determined that it clearly was weakening.”

That’s not just mistaken or poor reporting. That’s intentionally lying,
that is crying wolf. The author of the article, Will Bunch, also very
succinctly nailed the reasons behind this kind of media coverage: Ratings,
journalist careers, and political opportunism. (Anderson Cooper, it is
pointed out, was offered his primetime anchor spot after his spirited
coverage during Katrina.)

Having spent twelve hours in the Philly EOC and then not being able to sleep
afterwards because I was watching the destruction being wrought in western
New York, Connecticut and Vermont, I truly believe that the storm was
definitely not over-hyped.

That said, it raises an interesting point and leads me to another criticism
of the media (that I’ll deal with in another post).

Gerald explicitly asks about something that bedevils public health
communicators daily. Ghosts of 1976. Public health communicators have shied
away from making grandiose statements about threats ever since they warned
the public about the swine flu threat (until after Katrina, I believe). In
this week’s case, if we’re wrong and get people scared for something that
ultimately doesn’t happen, will they stop believing us? Are we
unintentionally crying wolf? Best intentions and all that.

I like to think there’s a way to avoid that fate, but I haven’t seen it
demonstrated to know if it works. It makes sense rattlin’ around in my
brain, but I’m anxious to see it in action. I call it the post-campaign era.
Once we get beyond communicating with our publics in a one-off
fashion—“Here’s what you need to know about the hurricane that’s coming
tomorrow”—and begin a longer conversation directly with them—“We’re
worried about this storm that’s a week out, and here’s why,” and then, “Now
that the hurricane has blown through and we’re okay, let us know how your
neighborhood fared, and also, the Red Cross needs blood donors.”

You’re supposed to say now, “That’s ridiculous, Jim. The media would never
carry those long messages over weeks at a time.” Exactly. We need to move
beyond the media, ESPECIALLY the national media (whose presence will be
measured in hours). Have a conversation directly with your public. Be
available to them all the time. Have the conversation saying we got lucky,
but others didn’t fare so well. Here’s what we can do next time to ensure
that if it is worse, we’ll be okay.

I agree with Gerald that if we continue with our one-off, campaign-based
strategy, people will see us as crying wolf. If the only time they hear from
us is right before a disaster that seemingly always fizzles, of course
they’ll stop believing us. But if we have that one-to-one, always on
conversation, maybe we won’t be seen as fear-mongers, but


EpiRen and Our Failure to Make Rules

As some of you know, I used to blog using a
. I did it for many
reasons, chief among them a fear that in the absence of a realistic,
well-considered and comprehensive social media and public
communication policy by my employer, my posts could be used against me
and place myself and my employer in a sticky situation. In the three
years since making that decision, a best practice began to emerge
around the country regarding the personal use of social media networks
and how it affected, or intersected, with one’s career and workplace.
(I say best practice very specifically, because this is not something
written well anywhere—least of all in case law.) Due to a variety of
circumstances, one among them this emerging best practice, I dropped
my pseudonym and began writing as myself. The rewards have been
greater than I could have imagined, yet the worry that surfaces each
time I press, “Post,” is palpable.

I bring up this little history lesson because a good Twitter-friend of
mine, René Najera (@EpiRen of Twitter-fame), has been slapped on the
wrist by his employer as a direct result of his online activities.
(Thank you to my good, real-life-friend James
for the heads up.) As I
read the article on
I couldn’t help but relive all of the arguments that caused me to post
pseudonymously, and fret about the damage I may have already done to
my future.

René was an epidemiology god on Twitter, regularly holding
“Epidemiology Night School,” and vociferously arguing for the cause of
childhood immunization (and indeed vaccination in general). All of
that has ended now, as his employer has—as part of his
agreement—forbade him from all social networking activity related to
public health. It seems that, as part of his vociferous defense, he
participated in a discussion that reached a point where someone
complained of his activities to his employer. (Seriously, I rewrote
that sentence like four times. That’s the most even-handed way I can
put it.) Because René wrote using his real name and it wasn’t hard to
figure out who his employer was, making the complaint was easy. Much
like it would be for me. And, again with the worry.

Today’s little story leads me to a shortcoming that I’ve noticed in my
posts on the need for government agencies, and private industry, to
confront the new reality that social media has forced upon us all. The
rules still remain largely unwritten, and in the absence of good
rules, capricious reactions to poor judgements and complaints will
blindly lead us—eventually—to common-sensical rules. But in the
meantime, folks like René risk getting their careers derailed.

The shortcoming that I feel I have is that I get haughty. I say things
like, “Lead, follow, or get run the hell over.” And I believe that
someday public agencies will get it and move into the twenty-first
century, or they’ll be recognized as dinosaurs and cast aside. The
problem is that this agencies are full of people who forgo the money
of private enterprise due SOLELY to their passion for the work they
do. They believe in it to their core (much like René), and are willing
to tell the world about it. Why should these people, your best
advocates, have to walk the razor’s edge until some executive gets his
head out of the sand and makes some rules? Why my blasé stance? (Could
it be my positivist approach satisfies my need to believe that should
the hammer come down on me, my executive will support the work I do?
Not entirely smart, and not good for everyone else in my position, or

So, my charge to you today is to push for some common-sensical, EASY,
rules on social media usage in the workplace. I’ve got a few PIOs
reading this blog, and you guys and gals are perfect to advance this
work. If you’re not a PIO, you probably know one, and I ask that you
forward this along to them.

What should a good social media policy encompass? Well, start here:
the Online Database of Social Media
. Browse
through and see what others have done.

Then consider your policy over the long-term. While social media is
new and fancy right now, it will soon be everywhere and part and
parcel of nearly everyone’s lives. Will your policy hold up in that
world? Does it understand that public speech these days does not
involve a soapbox and a dozen listeners, but instead a comment box and
millions of listeners? (And everyone in your legal department’s
sphincter just tightened.)

Also consider, though, what is the difference between a Facebook post
(complaining about work) and pamphleting (some racist screed)? Is it
the method or the message that you should be looking at?

Finally, is it prudent to assume that all of the communications coming
out of your department is controlled by your communications office?
What does your janitor’s MySpace page say about your “mission?” Some
of my background research on that spokesperson
I put up
this week congratulated one agency for getting their door people and
security folks through media training.

Think of it this way, the face of your agency is no longer just the
PIO and Director. It’s now each and every employee. And until we set
some ground rules, folks may potentially reflect poorly on our agency
(wittingly or unwittingly), with either no recourse or a vastly
overblown hand-smack.

This needs to be a priority, lest we have other dedicated, passionate
people like René become discouraged and move out of public service.

If you’d like to know more about the ongoing saga, the scienceblogging
field has seemingly exploding in René’s defense. Already two of the
top ten Google results for “EpiRen” include posts on the situation,
like this one.

The Face of Your Response

I’ve read a lot about spokespeople lately. They are, quite literally,
the face of your organization, your response, your agency. They
provide the face of the matter. Where the rubber meets the road and
all that.

Quick, who is your agency’s spokesperson?


But let’s assume you’ve at least vetted your spokesperson and taught
them what to do with their hands. Your Mayor, right? Or CEO. They’re
savvy and can handle the cameras, so probably.

In an emergency, though, that’s not the end of your problems. Not by
far. And that’s because your spokesperson is the person who will be
blamed for the situation—rightly or wrongly. So, are you sure you want
your vetted, hands-at-her-sides spokesperson up there getting blamed?
Your executive might be running for election, your CEO might be
worried about the effects of being a punching bag in front of the
stockholders. Sure, you want to project that the leader is in charge,
but should they be up there every day? At every press conference?
Inextricably linked to the continuously unfolding disaster? Is there
some other leader who might be (more expendable) better linked to the

(Think hard about how CEO Tony Hayward did during the Deepwater
Horizon response. I argue that it was appropriate for him to be
present at the beginning, but as the disaster stretched on, did he
represent the face BP wanted to project? After the chief spokesperson
position changed to Gulf native Bob Dudley, notice how the tenor of
the response changed?)

You see, your decision about who to put in front of the cameras should
no longer be predicated on the answer to the question, “What do you do
with your hands?” Think strategically, think long-term. Wo should your
spokesperson be now? Now? Five hours from now? In two weeks? Are you
sure it should be the same person?

Disaster Stylebook

In anticipation of the upcoming tenth anniversary of the
9/11 attacks, the Associated Press has done something I’ve never heard
of: developed and released what folks are calling a “situational
stylebook.” Dubbed the Sept. 11 Style and Reference
the AP has compiled a list of terms (including pronunciation) that
reporters may use in their stories about the event, in addition to a
full account of all related events from 8:00 a.m. until 5:25 p.m.

What. A. Resource.

Normally something this cool would be enough, but I had a thought. Why
don’t we do this as PIOs? Now this obviously isn’t for everyone and
every emergency. But for those long-term responses? Think public
health emergencies or wildland fires or oil spills. Something that’s
going to go on for days, weeks, months and has lots of confusing
terms, spellings and pronunciations. There are names to remember,
players that may be difficult to sort out and critically important

And really? How difficult would that be? A two-page document that
gives the history of your emergency. That allows reporters and
bloggers and the public to get it right the first time, no matter at
what point in the story they’ve become interested.

A disaster stylebook, if you will. You’ve probably already got all of
the information you need to put one together. Now, just remember to
post it to your Media

National Conference on Health Communication, Marketing and Media

Thanks to the fine folks at NPHIC, I had the
rare pleasure of participating in the 2011 National Conference on
Health Communication, Marketing and Media
sponsored by SAMHSA, the
NCI and NPHIC. What
an amazing conference!

My first reaction to attending this conference was, “Wow, look at all
of the women!” I’m used to attending emergency management conferences
full of men and this was quite a change, to say the least. While there
certainly were men there, and there certainly are women at my EM
conferences, I wonder why the gender balance is so severe. Especially
when there is so much GREAT information that we can learn from
different conferences. I learned so much from all of these amazing
communicators that was completely relevant to my everyday work that,
frankly, it reinvigorated me. I can’t WAIT to try some of this stuff.

The theme of the conference was “Listening for Change,” and that
simple idea, listening, was a common thread throughout the week.
Listening to one’s audience is important to ensure that our messages
are getting through, that we can tweak our messaging to make sure that
it addresses the needs we are looking to work on and to preemptively
develop messages and campaigns that actually work! Too often, I think,
our messages (both in public health AND public information) are
developed in a vacuum and released into the ether. Listening rarely

The sessions I attended touch on a wide variety of subjects, but I
think I can distill them down to two: full-throated use of social
media networks and identifying and relating to the many audiences you
strive to meet, which is fun, because I tend to talk about those two
subjects lots here.

I can succintly put three ideas out there that I really consider takeaways.

  1. Your audience is varied. Every time you push a message out, it will
    reach different ears and eyes. Is a message pushed to the media
    appropriate for the public? Is a message pushed to the media
    structured in such a way for them to pick it up? Is a message
    appropriate to mothers or fathers and why? Does that “why” influence
    whether or not they will successfully receive your message? There was
    an amazing session called, “Not All Parents Are The Same,” that talked
    about just that.

  2. Consider unusual uses of social media. These ideas came from a
    session called, “Using Twitter as a Tool for Community Engagement and
    Collaboration,” and focused on the hows and whys of Twitter chats,
    townhalls and “Twitter-views.” Twitter is not just a push tool, but an
    opportunity to interact very, very closely with a potentially WIDE
    range of people. The White House, HHS Office of Disease Prevention and
    Health Promotion, Health Literacy Missouri and CDC National Prevention
    Information Network have used these types of tools to make Twitter
    MORE useful, both to themselves and their publics.

  3. Fail fast. Kevin Dame and Chris Waugh of
    IDEO took part in an extremely well put
    together session using the common issue of childhood obesity and how
    to reduce or prevent it as each presenter’s point of departure. Their
    presentation took the stand that we’re too invested in what we do.
    Consider your latest big project. How many years should it take to
    implement? How many tens of thousands of dollars? By the time that
    project is ready to go, you’re most likely wed to it and it’s success.
    You will do backflips to ensure that the last three years of your life
    (or so) haven’t been wasted. Even if they may have been. The IDEO
    folks advocated that we should instead be looking to design
    “sacrificial projects.” These are projects that are put together in
    hours and with minimal budgets. That way, if they fail, who cares,
    because it’s only been two days worth of time. And undoubtedly the
    project designers learned something from the exercise, so it’s not a
    complete waste. Try. Fail. Try again, but in a slightly (or vastly)
    different way. Eventually you’ll succeed, or learn enough to advance
    the science of what you’re doing. (And frankly, think how interesting
    your job would be if you had new projects every couple of weeks.)

Thank you to every amazing person I met in Atlanta at the conference.
Thank you to all of the great Tweeters that live-tweeted every session
well enough that I always regreted that I chose a particular session
and wished that I was in the other one (and likely they felt the
same about the session I was in). And once again, thank you NPHIC for
the wonderful opportunity.

Looking for Support in the Least Likely of Places

There are only a few key points that I strongly recommend on this
blog. In fact, most folks at work know that I regularly use the maxim,
“It depends.” But I do believe there are some absolutes, some
recommendations that everyone should seriously consider. One of those
recommendations is to establish a presence on various social media
networks. Today.

The thing is, I know it’s not that easy. There are executives to
remind, legal wants to review, IT to fight, content to create and, oh
yeah, your job to do, too.

One of my other favorite sayings is, “Don’t be a dontbe, be a doobie!”
(Illicit reference completely unintentional, and funny every time.) So
how can we be doobies when faced with a blazing need to push
information on social networks that we have no presence on? Like, say,
a crisis, or emergency, or disaster. First, we need to realize that
social media is going to collect and forward and be a source of
voluminous amounts of information. And we have a desperate need to
participate in that discussion. Where others see a potential problem
(Dontbe’s), I see a solution (I’m a doobie! See? Funny every time.).

Am I not being clear enough? How about we let Joe Tripodi of
Coca-Cola, writing in the Harvard Business
put it more bluntly in this great article I’ve already linked to once:

Accept that you don’t own your brands; your consumers do. Coca-Cola first learned this lesson in 1985 with the introduction of New Coke, but it’s become even more important with the growth of social media. As I write this, Coca-Cola’s Facebook page has more than 25 million likes (fans). Our fanpage wasn’t started by an employee at our headquarters in Atlanta. Instead, it was launched by two consumers in Los Angeles as an authentic expression of how they felt about Coca-Cola. A decade ago, a company like ours would have sent a “cease and desist” letter from our lawyer. Instead, we’ve partnered with them to create new content, and our Facebook page is growing by about 100,000 fans every week.

Yeah, sure, but they’re not the government, it’s just Coke! Right?

But what if a government did farm out their Facebook presence in an
emergency? Like, say ChristChurch, New Zealand after an earthquake?
The Southold Voice points us in that direction

Concerned citizens are currently joining one particular Facebook page at the rate of 400+ per hour, with numbers increasing exponentially as I write. Although there are at least two other community or business organized, credible Facebook pages for the Christchurch disaster, offering news, updates and related support services, there’s nothing to compete with this one particular page.

Too far afield? How about Joplin, Missouri? Fortunately, the City of
Joplin had a Facebook page already. But in the aftermath of the EF-5
tornado that devastated the town, one man set up a Facebook page that
just took off. More than 100,000 Likes in four days took off. The
official page
today, months
later, still has less than 13,000. The Columbia Business Times has
the story here.

The City of Joplin, to their credit, weren’t too proud, they didn’t
try to push people to the official page. They accepted that the
audience, for whatever reason, was somewhere else and took their
message there.

Today’s lesson? Set up accounts and be active on social media
networks. Barring that, be ready (and willing) to utilize
community-developed social media accounts. If your public is getting
their information from somewhere unofficial, consider working with the
account-holder to disseminate official information.

Remember, the MOST IMPORTANT thing is to get good information to
your publics in an emergency. Do it however you can, even if it means
going around official channels.

The Media is Dead; Long Live media

Okay, I love this recent article in the


I have yet to read anything that so succinctly describes the state of
the media on the long arc. It describes an idea that I’d been tossing
around for a while—bloggers as modern-day pamphleteers—but never
developed as perfectly as this, with a nod to the history of media.

I love this article because we can learn so much from it (and because
it validates what I’ve been thinking). How many of us, PIOs, media
companies, communications specialists, content developers, reporters,
are terrified about what’s been going on in the media these days? Here
in Philly, our newspapers are casting about for any way to stay afloat
in these new digital times. Many, many people are terrified that the
world they’ve worked in, toiled in, gave their lives for, is
disappearing. They reject it. They rail against it. Pointless. Fad.
Waste of time.

And yet? This is just a return to how media was always conducted, as
we see in the article. The deviation is correcting.

So what can we learn? Look to the history books for lessons. Without
vertical mass media to steer things, opinions are developed, fanned
and set ablaze by the most vociferous amongst us, the most committed,
the most dedicated. Think Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, Al Qaeda,
Michele Bachmann, Gary Vaynerchuk, Al Gore. I won’t dare to compare
the content of these thinkers, but the absolute dedication to
advancing their ideals is what allows them to shape popular thought
and discourse. They are changing the world today (or back then, as
the case may be), and are doing it while completely avoiding the mass
media as a dissemination tool.

So, how does this affect us as professional communicators? First, and
most importantly, they’re going to do what they do whether you think
social media is a fad or not. This is one area where the maxim, “Lead,
follow, or get run the hell over,” applies perfectly. If you ignore
it, you will get burned. Simple as that.

Second lesson? Understand that this process is not like a runaway
train. It can be acted upon. It can be massaged. It can be harnessed
and redirected as necessary. Or, it can be monitored. So you can get
ahead of it.

This second step is probably the most difficult thing to learn. All of
the rules of how we interact with the media are becoming less and less
useful. Do we treat bloggers and tweeters the same as reporters?
Should we? Or are they simply pamphleteers writing for local, slanted
rags like they did two hundred years ago?

For an example, I was totally impressed by how Philly’s Press
Secretary, Mark McDonald, recently handled a false story that was
gained national traction due to a Gawker

The Max Read story you have today is utterly false. There is no policy, plan or activity in Philadelphia where pedestrians are being ticketed for texting.

Your whack job reporter can spin his puerile fantasies about doing violence to people he does not like, but he first needs to get his facts straight. Indeed, Max might want to do a little READING before he writes.

Five years ago, he would have lost his job post haste. Today, with the
new rules? Well, he’s still here. Just like he would’ve been two
hundred years ago.

It truly is a brave new world.